Loading docks are busy hubs of activity for most warehouses, distribution centers, industrial buildings, and manufacturing facilities. Because these areas are heavily trafficked by vehicles and workers and because of the sheer size and weight of many of the products and materials that are being moved in and out of the facility, the dock area is also space where workplace injuries frequently occur.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that twenty-five percent of all warehouse injuries occur on loading docks. To help lower that number, OSHA has put specific requirements in place for loading dock safety, through 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.176 - Material Handling. These regulations include guidelines on the handling of mechanical equipment, secure storage of materials, housekeeping, clearance, and others. As a facility owner or manager, it is essential to know and implement OSHA’s requirements. Other guidelines include:
Open Dock Doors
Many employers require that dock doors be kept closed when active loading or unloading is not taking place to minimize the potential for loading dock injuries. In reality, however, the dock doors often stay open to help ventilate many facilities.
Other reasons for keeping dock doors open include the fact that open doors make it easier to see incoming vehicles during busy operating hours and holding doors open avoids the unnecessary wear and tear caused by opening and closing them countless times per day.
In these cases, it’s helpful to know what the OSHA requirements are regarding guardrails versus visual barriers for open dock doors. OSHA’s standard for protection of wall openings and holes states that a barrier that can prevent falls must guard any wall opening with a drop of more than four feet. This is a federal guideline that some states may enforce more strictly, so it’s important to check with your state’s specific requirements.
Most loading dock platforms are between forty-four and forty-eight inches high, as are most semi-trucks, flatbeds, and straight trucks. Refrigerated trucks almost always require a guardrail because they are generally fifty to sixty inches in bed height.
OSHA issued a clarification that if a facility can prove that the presence of a guardrail hinders visibility, then a visual barrier can be used instead of a guardrail or fall protection barrier. The accepted color for visual barriers is safety yellow, the internationally recognized color for caution. When choosing a visual barrier to use at open dock doors, the barrier needs to not only be brightly colored but also easily removed and installed, so it does not pose a safety threat during active loading times. Many warehouses opt for dock safety gates that swivel out of the way in mere seconds.
When deciding to install a safety gate, keep in mind the following factors:
The gate’s capacity: Safety gates can vary in their ability to withstand weight, but you want to make sure they can at least hold up against an average person’s body weight when leaning against them.
The gate’s power system: You may want to consider whether to have a manual or powered safety gate. Most safety gates are manual because they are cheaper and easier to install, yet just as capable as powered gates. Some facilities, however, need powered gates if employees are too preoccupied, distracted, or negligent to put the safety gate into place. A safety gate is only effective if it is used.
The gate’s mobility: The direction that the safety gate moves is one of the most important factors to consider when purchasing one. Depending on your facility’s layout, you may want a gate that lifts vertically. Other options for mobility include swinging horizontally, moving as a cantilever, and folding in the middle.
The gate’s preventative potential: Take into account what your safety gate needs to guard against. Is it mainly serving as a visual barrier to prevent a worker from walking off the edge of the dock, or does it need to be able to stop a forklift from falling? Safety gates with lift gate systems are the most durable types of gates and can prevent forklift injuries. Net gates are designed to prevent loads from falling and may be sufficient for your loading dock’s needs.
Edges of Loading Docks
Regardless of the specific height of a loading dock, the fact that it has a drop-off means that it is a potential hazard for falls. Edges should be marked with bright colors to help signal that there is a drop-off. Yellow is the most commonly used color, and some dock plates even come pre-painted in yellow as a helpful safety feature.
Another consideration for the edges of loading docks is how to guard them. Some employers may think that a three-foot drop is insignificant but severe injuries do occur at this height. A fall of even three feet can be especially dangerous when vehicles like forklifts are involved. OSHA guidelines specifically state that forklift drivers should maintain a safe distance from the edge of ramps or platforms to avoid severe injury accidents.
Conforming to OSHA standards to guard an edge can prevent many injuries to workers on foot or in vehicles. Of all the possible safety measures that can be taken, implementing a dock gate or rail is one of the easiest to install and maintain.
OSHA requirements for loading docks include the following:
Keep a safe distance from the edge of the loading dock
Install guardrails or visible barriers on open dock doors
Maintain clean and dry working surfaces
Properly store materials and goods to prevent crowding and injury
Post clearance signs to warn drivers of clearance limits
Paint the edges of the loading dock to emphasize where it drops off
A busy loading dock has many moving pieces regularly in play, and it is no wonder that accidents often occur. Establishing proper workplace safety protocols is a challenge for all facility owners and managers. That’s why it is so vital to develop routine safety training for all employees and make sure to follow all OSHA guidelines to help reduce the number of accidents at your dock.
As an authorized dealer of high-quality aftermarket dock parts, PartsBrite.com proudly serves companies across a wide variety of industries. We stand behind the quality of every part and product we sell, and we are here to help you get the right part for your specific needs.
We have warehouses located in California and Wisconsin which allows us to quickly deliver quality parts to businesses in all the contiguous forty-eight states. We offer free shipping and fast service because we know that time is money for your company and without the necessary parts for your dock, your business will suffer. Contact us today at 1-855-PARTSBRITE (1-855-727-8727).